Nutrition and dietetics is simply the art and science of its consumption in relation to human health to obtain optimal health condition. The art aspect of food involves cultivation, processing and preservation. While the science aspect deals with the metabolic processes in the body.
Malnutrition is the major problem facing about 95% of underdeveloped countries in the world. Consumption of foods rich in nutrition such as vegetables, tubers, fruits and the adoption of adequate processing methods will go a long way in maintaining, reserving or preventing unnecessary loss of nutrient.
Furthermore, malnutrition might not really be as a result of none availability of nutrient rich foods, but lack of nutrition education, cultural practices, ethnic groups, religion, etc. Introducing nutrition education to the target groups will go a long way in preventing nutrition related morbidity and mortality rate in these societies as well as eradicate some nutrient deficiencies which cause impaired child development.
Also, there are so many health conditions which develop due to lack of education on proper feeding habit and management; diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, arteriosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, scurvy, pregnancy induced hypertension, pregnancy induced diabetes, obesity and so on, which could be eradicated and managed as the case may be.
Nutrition in pregnancy and complimentary feeding is one of the major areas needed to be focused on. Pregnant mothers need to be well educated on their adequate nutrition intake and the amount of calories required for each level of pregnancy. Foods rich in nutrients such as carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals are required in adequate quantity to keep the optimal health condition of both the mother and the fetus and also prevent nutrition related illness which could course stillbirth.
Mothers also need the knowledge of nutrition and breast feeding practices which could benefit both the mother and the child. Educating mothers on breast feeding methods according to WHO standard, is the key to reducing child mortality and enhance child’s development and growth. According to WHO, exclusive breast feeding practices for the period of 6months and the introduction of not just complementary food but a well processed nutrition rich complimentary foods alongside breast milk, is a must do practice which goes a long way in giving a child optimum good health condition and helps in building the child’s immune system and other related organs in the body thereby preventing susceptibility to diseases and infections as the child develops.
Courses of malnutrition in both mother and child:
2 Disease condition
4 Food availability
5 Mythical Beliefs
7 Peer group
9 Environment etc.
Education on cultivation of nutritionally rich foods needs to be introduced in the society to ensure food security in the nation. Food security being the availability of healthy and nutritional rich foods not just in the society but at the house holds levels. The utilization of the food product actualized should be handled adequately. Food diversification, fortification and enrichment are other areas of concentration.
Individuals of different backgrounds need the knowledge of food diversification in their day to day feeding to ensure adequate consumption of nutrients. Food diversification is the ability to use or eat different food products. For example, maintaining a particular feeding habit as a result of how you are brought up is not too good as long as nutrition is a concern. Food fortification can said to be the application of some vital vitamins and some minerals in food. Food enhancement being the ability to adopt different processing methods in food
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